One of the other two studies was conducted by Boston Children's Hospital who examined two groups of adolescents.  The group which was encouraged to consume water or light sodas for a year gained kilograms ( lb). The other group, which consumed sugary drinks, gained kilograms ( lb).  The third study was conducted by Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam , Netherlands .  They studied 641 children ages four to eleven over 18 months.  They were split into two groups. One group drank sweet and fruity drinks and the other group drank the same drink with sugarless sweeteners.  The group that drank the drink that had sugarless sweeteners gained kilograms ( lb) on average compared to kilograms ( lb) on average by the other group. 
Through anecdotes and an overview of social trends, [ Dawes ] provides the historical context for our fixation [on childhood obesity], revealing shifting cultural perceptions, medical pre-occupations, scientific advances and economic forces linked to the phenomenon. By clarifying where we have been, Dawes aims to guide us forward… Perhaps health professionals’ efforts to contain, control, prevent and reverse childhood obesity have been constrained by a failure to see and consider the full scope of the threat and the best defenses—that is, by the focus on one idea at a time. Dawes replaces such parochial perspectives with a window 100 years wide. May it help show us the way.