“Schooling” teaches one to accept the information that one is given and to not question it so that one can function within the society one lives. If one questions the books as written or that taught, one is most often given a failing grade. It is accepted that if one is failing in school, one will continue to be a failure in life. If one questions the standard quo at one’s work, those in charge tend to look at you and judge you as not a team player or trouble. Or in any one organization one belongs to. But if you accept this type of schooling, one has a chance at success in society.
Educational systems vary enormously around the world; this report does not attempt to analyze differences in educational quality, but focuses primarily on educational attainment in terms of number of years of schooling. It distinguishes among four broad levels of educational attainment: no formal schooling (less than one year of primary school), primary education (completion of at least one grade of primary school), some secondary education (but no degree beyond high school) and post-secondary education (completion of some kind of college, university or vocational degree beyond high school, also referred to in this report as “higher education”). For comparability across countries, these educational categories are based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 1997; see Methodology for more details).
In time, some ideas from these experiments and paradigm challenges may be adopted as the norm in education, just as Friedrich Fröbel 's approach to early childhood education in 19th-century Germany has been incorporated into contemporary kindergarten classrooms. Other influential writers and thinkers have included the Swiss humanitarian Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi ; the American transcendentalists Amos Bronson Alcott , Ralph Waldo Emerson , and Henry David Thoreau ; the founders of progressive education , John Dewey and Francis Parker ; and educational pioneers such as Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner , and more recently John Caldwell Holt , Paul Goodman , Frederick Mayer , George Dennison , and Ivan Illich .