English comp research papers

The initial stages of training in zazen resemble traditional Buddhist samatha meditation in actual practice, and emphasize the development of the power of concentration, or joriki [12] (定力) ( Sanskrit samādhibala ). The student begins by focusing on the breath at the hara/tanden [13] with mindfulness of breath ( ānāpānasmṛti ) exercises such as counting breath ( sūsokukan 数息観) or just watching it ( zuisokukan 随息観). Mantras are also sometimes used in place of counting. Practice is typically to be continued in one of these ways until there is adequate " one-pointedness " of mind to constitute an initial experience of samadhi . At this point, the practitioner moves to one of the other two methods of zazen.

English comp research papers

english comp research papers

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