In 2013, a mysterious group of hackers that calls itself the Shadow Brokers stole a few disks full of National Security Agency secrets. Since last summer, they've been dumping these secrets on the internet. They have publicly embarrassed the NSA and damaged its intelligence-gathering capabilities, while at the same time have put sophisticated cyberweapons in the hands of anyone who wants them. They have exposed major vulnerabilities in Cisco routers, Microsoft Windows, and Linux mail servers, forcing those companies and their customers to scramble.
Imagine a brain in which the visceral sense of knowing is disconnected from centres for logical thought, yet stuck on a given idea. No matter what contrary evidence or line of reasoning is presented that the idea is wrong, that brain will continue to generate a feeling of rightness. We’re all familiar with this behaviour in its most extreme form – those intractable ‘know-it-alls’ entirely immune to contradictory ideas. We must at least consider the possibility that know-it-all behaviour is a problem of neural circuitry, much like dyslexia.
Joseph M. Bessette coined the term "deliberative democracy" in his 1980 work "Deliberative Democracy: The Majority Principle in Republican Government",  and went on to elaborate and defend the notion in "The Mild Voice of Reason" (1994). Others contributing to the notion of deliberative democracy include Carlos Nino , Jon Elster , Roberto Gargarella , John Gastil , Jürgen Habermas , David Held , Joshua Cohen , John Rawls, Amy Gutmann , Noëlle McAfee , John Dryzek , Rense Bos , James S. Fishkin , Jane Mansbridge , Jose Luis Marti , Dennis Thompson , Benny Hjern , Hal Koch , Seyla Benhabib , Ethan Leib , Charles Sabel , Jeffrey K. Tulis , David Estlund , Mariah Zeisberg , Jeffrey L. McNairn, Iris Marion Young and Robert B. Talisse .