Numerous studies have been conducted to examine whether race is associated with sentence length or severity. An early study by Joan Petersilia found that in California, Michigan, and Texas, Hispanics and blacks tended to receive harsher sentences than whites convicted of comparable crimes and with similar criminal records.  A 1998 meta-analysis found that the relationship between race and sentencing in the . was not statistically significant, but that the use of different methods of classifying race may also mask the true race-sentencing relationship.  A study published the same year, which examined sentencing data from Pennsylvania , found that young black men were sentenced more harshly than were members of any other age-race-gender combination.  Similarly, a 2005 meta-analysis found that blacks tended to receive harsher sentences than did whites, and that this effect was "statistically significant but small and highly variable." 
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