Tcd thesis submission

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The stability of porous pharmaceutical products like tablets strongly depends on temperature and relative humidity. The compaction pressure defines the porosity of tablets. In general, the adsorption of water vapor on solid surfaces induces a relaxation of the surface molecules and causes swelling. In mesoporous materials capillary condensation occurs at relative humidities below saturation causing a second deformation effect. We apply the concept of disjoining pressure DP – which is by definition the pressure tensor in z-direction between two phases. The sum of all known pressure components acting in a sorption system is an adequate descriptor for the overall DP [1]. Thus, the first adsorbed layers are described by the ESW (Excess Surface Work). This simple transformation of the experimental isotherm delivers directly the monolayer capacity and loss of energy of the adsorbed molecules. ESW has been already successfully applied on APIs in correlation with solvation effects [2]. In order to describe capillary condensation and evaporation a second part is added based on the Derjaguin approach and extended Kelvin equation [3]. A third component within the DP approach describes deformations. These are treated through Hook’s law. The assumption of complete wetting allows avoiding the usage of interfacial energy of solid adsorbent. The result of the model is a system of self-consisting equations describing the deformation and the adsorbed amount simultaneously. Experimental results for swelling and shrinkage, pore size changes, surface energies as function of relative humidity will be presented and analysed with DP approach.

Tcd thesis submission

tcd thesis submission

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